海洋地学科普丛书五册(海底探索之路、海底景观之奇、海洋矿产之源、海陆沧桑之变、海洋世界之窗)

书名: 
海洋地学科普丛书五册(海底探索之路、海底景观之奇、海洋矿产之源、海陆沧桑之变、海洋世界之窗)
作者: 
青岛海洋地质研究所
出版机构: 
海洋出版社
出版时间: 
2011/08
ISBN: 
978-7-5027-8123-1、 978-7-5027-8120-0、978-7-5027-8124-8、978-7-5027-8121-7、978-7-5027-8122-4
推荐单位: 
青岛海洋地质研究所
目前得票数: 
2268
内容简介: 

“丛书”编委会约请长期从事调查研究的资深专家担纲编著和审定工作,使“丛书”具有科学性、知识性、趣味性、通俗性、权威性,深入浅出,文图并茂,反映最新的科学进展和成果,以及科学前沿发展趋势。让读者既了解海洋地球科学知识,学科发展的历程、地质演变的重大事件、代表性人物的故事,又知道辽阔的海洋、深邃的海底蕴藏有比陆地更为丰富而巨量的矿产资源,尚待人类去勘探、开发和利用。

《海底探索之路》(何起祥、Kenneth J.Hsu主编, ISBN 978-7-5027-8123-1),系统地讲述了现代地质学家探索、发现海洋演变奥秘的艰辛历程。从“水成论”、“火成论”到“固定论”、“均变论”,再到“地槽论”、“活动论”,以至到代表地学革命的“板块构造”理论的诞生和全球构造体系的建立。科学家各种观点的交锋、不同学派的争鸣,使人类在海洋探索之路和海洋地球科学发展中不断前进。

《海底景观之奇》(丁东主编, ISBN 978-7-5027-8120-0),让人们感知那神秘莫测的深海大洋,深邃无比的海山、海盆、海沟,贯穿全球、循环不息的潮汐、洋流,无不凸现海底世界自然神奇的魅力。该书还讲述了近现代人类远洋、极地探险和海洋科考活动;世界主要大洋的地质构造、形成演化历史,以及多彩多姿、神奇变幻的海底景观世界。

《海洋矿产之源》(莫杰、蔡乾忠、姚长新主编, ISBN 978-7-5027-8124-8),从近岸浅海到辽阔的陆架、陆坡,到深邃的海盆蕴藏着种类多样、丰富巨量的矿产资源。该书向读者打开海洋资源宝库的矿产资源之门,让读者们看到:近岸的各种各样滨海砂矿、固体矿产;大陆架、陆坡区的石油、天然气和一种新型能源天然气水合物(可燃冰);深海大洋盆地的多金属结核、海山区的结壳和洋脊周围的热液硫化物矿。同时展现出海底矿产资源勘查开发的高新技术和未来海洋矿业的美好前景。

《海陆沧桑之变》(赵松龄、王珍岩主编, ISBN 978-7-5027-8121-7),该书讲述了地球上陆地与海洋的地貌环境在亿万年的地质时代中经历过翻天覆地的变迁;沧海桑田的巨变,才形成现今的分布格局。科学家们通过反复调查研究,发现地史上构造运动和海平面升降所留下的各种痕迹。同时,描述了中国四大海域的形成与演化过程及海陆变迁的重要地质事件。

《海洋世界之窗》(徐家声、刘锡清主编, ISBN 978-7-5027-8122-4),多姿多彩的黄金海岸带,恍若仙境的海岛绚丽缤纷,令人神往。今天,它们更是发展滨海旅游业和外向型经济的桥头堡,并关系到国家海洋经济产业发展的前景。本书生动地描述了海岸和海岛的形成与演变,展现出它们的风光秀丽及近海海域丰富的自然资源。

创新点: 

《海洋地学科普丛书》的最大特色是涉及时空范围广,从宇宙起源、地球环境变迁、海洋成因、海底景观、深海大洋探宝、海陆沧海桑田到令人神往的海岛旅游等。时间跨度超过46亿年,而且论述内容遍及中国的四大海区、全球四大洋和七大洲,让读者开阔对地球认识的视野,提高人们了解海洋、维护国家海洋权益的海洋意识。《丛书》具有“三多”特点:一是涉及学术人物多;二是科学探索故事多;三是论述了种类繁多的海底资源。提到近代国内外知名地学200多位,讲述逾百个有关海底探索、海岸带、海岛及海底景观的故事,使人遐想连篇、印象深刻。全书内容丰富详实,生动地告诉读者:建设海洋强国是实现中国梦的希望!《丛书》具备科学性、知识性、通俗性和趣味性,做到文、图、表并茂,封面设计、装帧、插图、编排鲜明新颖,是海洋科学中一部具有鲜明地学特色的高级科普书。

作者简介: 

《丛书》主要由何起祥和莫杰统筹编撰。何起祥,男,1936年9月出生,研究员,现任中国地质调查局海岸带地质研究中心主任、青岛海洋地质研究所科学技术咨询委员会主任。兼任CCOP终生荣誉顾问、成都理工大学荣誉教授。曾任中国海洋湖沼学会常务理事、副秘书长,中国海洋地质学会常务理事,中国沉积学会理事,中国地质学会冰川第四纪专业委员会副主任,山东资源环境学会理事,《海洋与湖沼》、《沉积学报》、《海洋地质与第四纪地质》、《China Earth Sequences》等刊物的编委。主要负责《海底探索之路》一册的编写以及丛《丛书》的统筹工作。

莫杰,男,汉族,1937年7月出生,研究员,中共党员。1960年毕业于长春地质学院地质系。现任国土资源部青岛海洋地质研究所科学技术咨询委员会办公室主任;"九五"国家863高技术计划海洋领域820主题专家组办公室成员,《地球科学进展》、《海洋地质与第四纪地质》杂志编委,《863--820主题通讯》主编。主要负责《海洋矿产之源》一册的编写以及丛《丛书》的统筹工作。

图书序言: 

《丛书》为中国科学技术协会科普专项资助的“十一五”国家重点图书出版规划项目,由中科院院士秦蕴珊任“丛书”编委会主任,中国科普作家协会理事长、中科院院士刘嘉麒执笔作序。序言如下:

海洋,这是人们既熟悉又陌生的地方。在已知的行星中,目前只发现地球上有海洋,有人类;也许,正是有了海洋才有了生命,有了人类。从这点上说,海洋是生命的源泉。生命之源的水有97%存在于海洋之中,人类生存的地球表面约71%是海洋,29%为陆地,有些陆地还是从当年的沧海演变而来。地球上发生的一切自然现象几乎都与海洋有关,可见,海洋在整个世界占据着非常重要的地位。然而,人们对海洋的了解远不如陆地:什么是海?什么是洋?它是怎样形成的?又是怎样发展着,变化着,影响整个世界…… 对我,对许多人来说,海洋是一个巨大迷宫!

带着人们对海洋的向往,考虑到人们对海洋知识和海洋科学的渴望,海洋出版社和国土资源部青岛海洋地质研究所共同策划,诚请青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室、中国海洋大学、中国科学院海洋研究所和国家海洋局第一海洋研究所的多位著名专家学者,撰写了这套“海洋地学科普丛书”。丛书共分五册,全面系统地介绍了海岸、海岛、海洋,海底世界,海洋矿产,海洋资源,海洋灾害,海洋对气候环境的巨大调节作用以及中国的海洋和海洋事业。读起来不仅能增长海洋方面的科学知识,了解海洋的奥秘,为我们伟大祖国不仅有960万平方千米的辽阔陆地,还有约300万平方千米主张管辖海域而感到自豪;还能找到身临海洋境地的感觉,舒展海一样的豪情,洋一样的胸怀,受益匪浅。

我不是搞海洋的,本无资格为此套丛书作序,但在去南、北极考察的过程中深受大海的熏陶和洗礼,海洋的魅力深深地吸引着我。这次受出版社和朋友之邀,只好勉为其难,先科普一下自己,再成此序;说是序,不如说是读后感。我诚心感谢海洋出版社和丛书作者,给我这样一个受科普长知识的机会,更要以一个先睹为快的读者身份感谢海洋出版社、青岛海洋地质研究所以及丛书作者为广大民众出了一套好书,做了一件好事。科学普及是每位科学家和科学工作者义不容辞的社会责任。科学越普及,民众的科学素养越提高,我们的民族,我们的国家,才能越进步,越昌盛。我衷心祝愿我们的科学工作者为广大民众创作出更多更好的科普作品。预祝“海洋地学科普丛书”早日面世。

目录: 

内容试读: 

第一章  海洋的起源

混沌初开

人类的先民终于站立起来了!他们走出莽莽苍苍的丛林,看到日月经天,江河行地,鹰击长空,鱼翔浅底,禁不住要问,如此壮丽的大千世界,究竟从何而来?

我们的祖先将这个多彩多姿而又充满谜团的大千世界称为“宇宙”。“宇”的意思是无边无际的空间;“宙”的意思是无穷无尽的时间。“宇宙”之意,就是时空无限。不仅它的规模无可比拟,对它的探索也是没有穷尽的。

从人类文明的萌芽时期就开始出现各种各样有关宇宙成因的故事。中国古代就有盘古开天辟地和女娲炼石补天的传说。据说天地之初,宇宙原是混沌一片,巨人盘古被困其中。为了争取自由,他以拔山之力挥动巨斧,向着那茫茫无际的黑暗用力劈砍,终于将这一片混沌劈为两半。上浮者日升一丈为天;下沉者日厚一丈为地。从此有了天地的分野。

但是,初始的天并不是那么齐整完美的。有一位“风”姓的古代 “天子”(就是我们常称的女娲氏或者“娲皇”),忽发奇想,炼五色石补天,我们才有了现在像穹庐一样笼盖四野的蓝天白云。

中华大地是古文明的摇篮。除了坊间的传说,中国古代文献中对于宇宙和地球的起源问题,也有许多古朴的观察和充满哲理的讨论。老子无疑是其中最杰出的一位。他说,“有物混成,先天地生,寂兮寥兮,独立不改,周行而不殆,可以为天地母。吾不知其名,强字之曰道”。又说,“道生一,一生二, 二生三, 三生万物。万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和”。他用“道”来概括天地以前的物质存在,包含朴素的唯物主义。

西方早期的宇宙成因观都是以地球为中心的,史称“地心说”。比较完整地提出“地心说”的学者是古希腊的欧多克斯,后经亚里士多德、托勒密进一步发展,成为统治一时的一种科学假说。在教会主宰一切的年代,“地心说”符合宗教的需要,深得教会的支持和保护。凡是不符合于“地心说”的言论和行动,一律被视为异端。1543年,波兰天文学家哥白尼在临终时发表了他的《天体运行论》,提出了以太阳为中心、地球围绕太阳转动的思想,史称“日心说”。哥白尼之所以选择临终之际发表这一科学著作,纯是为了逃避宗教迫害,可见用心良苦。“日心说”问世后,被教会斥为大逆不道的异端邪说,但是得到了大批具有科学良心和正义感的科学家的拥护和支持。为了捍卫这一学说,意大利思想家布鲁诺惨遭火刑;意大利科学家伽利略因此也被宗教法庭判处终身监禁。这些事实彰显了真理的伟大,暴露了宗教统治的残酷。那是人类历史上黑暗的年代。

时间是推动历史前进的火车头。欧洲的文艺复兴结束了宗教对科学的干扰和统治,人类对宇宙成因的认识也有了一次又一次大的飞跃。

宇宙包含着数不尽的大小星系。银河系是其中之一。而太阳系又是银河系的一员。在漫无边际的宇宙内,太阳系真好比沧海一粟,其实是十分渺小的。

太阳是一颗恒星。周围有八大行星沿着各自的轨道围绕太阳运行。在行星周围,还有一些更小的星体围绕着它们转动。这些小的星体称为卫星。月亮就是地球的一颗卫星。

太阳系中星体与星体之间的运动学和几何学关系是非常有规律的。比如:太阳系的星球,包括太阳在内,都无例外地处于转动状态;行星除了自转,还要围绕太阳公转;每一颗行星的公转都有一个近圆形的轨道;所有行星的轨道几乎都处在垂直于太阳自转轴的同一个平面内,那就是天文学家所说的黄道面,其公转方向与太阳的自转方向一致;行星的自转轴与其黄道面垂直;太阳自转方向、行星自转方向及行星围绕太阳公转的方向,三者近乎一致。行星轨道与太阳的距离,也是有规律的。如果我们按照行星与太阳之间的距离排序,那么,某行星与太阳的距离大致是前一颗行星与太阳的距离的两倍。行星可以分为两类。内行星或类地行星与地球的性质比较相近,都是石质的,体积较小;外行星或类木行星的性质与木星比较相似,都是气质的,体积较大。除了八大行星外,太阳系还有许多小行星,如阿波罗小行星,艾莫尔小行星和艾登小行星等。它们的情况更加复杂。关于太阳系的形成,有着各种各样的假说。但是,不管是哪一种假说,都必须能够解释上面所说的运动学和几何学的规律性。

天文学史上有关太阳系起源的假说,大致可以分为“演化论”和“灾变论”两类。演化论又称“一元论”。它认为太阳系是由同一种原始物质在运动过程中形成的。1644年,法国哲学家和数学家R. 德斯卡迪斯提出了一种涡流理论。他说,宇宙之初,天空充满了呈涡旋运动的气体。就像旋风会使尘埃聚集一样,旋转的气体中也会形成一些大小不同的物质凝聚中心。有一个大的,还有一群小的,它们因旋转而凝聚,最终变成了太阳和行星。1755年,德国哲学家I. 康德在涡流理论的基础上,引入牛顿的万有引力定律来解释物质的凝聚,认为那种旋转的气体云就是星云。它一边旋转,一边在引力的作用下缩聚。旋转促进缩聚,缩聚加速旋转,星云逐渐变成了扁圆形。最后,星云的中心缩聚成为太阳,剩下的物质凝聚成为行星,就形成了我们现在看到的太阳系。行星公转方向就是星云旋转的方向。

法国天文学家和数学家M. P. S.拉普拉斯在1796年提出的星云假说与康德的假说大同小异。太阳系起源于一个旋转着的尘埃云。万有引力使物质发生缩聚。缩聚使旋转速度加大,在星云边缘产生强大的离心力。当离心力超过向心力时,星云就会甩出一个环状物。这样的过程重复了九次,一共甩出了九个环状物。最后,星云的中心凝聚成为太阳,而每一个环则凝聚成为一个行星。因为拉普拉斯的假说与康德的假说并无原则区别,后人把它们联系到一起,称之为“康德—拉普拉斯假说”。

康德—拉普拉斯假说流行了差不多一百年。在18世纪末,质疑的声浪日高一日。引起“堤防”决口的最后一次冲击来自太阳系角动量的分布。反对者决心借助一个外来的星体来解释太阳系的成因,于是出现了“灾变论”或者“二元论”。

早在1745年,法国科学家C. 布丰就提出过一个具有灾变色彩的太阳系起源假说,比康德还要早10年。他说,在很久很久以前,有一个质量与太阳相近的彗星与太阳迎头相撞。撞下的大量太阳物质经过岁月的打磨,逐渐变成了行星。布丰的假说就像一幅科学漫画,很快被束之高阁。谁知到了20世纪初期,他的这一思想又复活了。

从1900年开始,美国地质学家T. C.张伯伦和天文学家F. R.莫尔顿连续发表文章,抨击康德—拉普拉斯假说。他们说,太阳系确是从一个旋转星云发展而成的。但是星云旋转的原因,不是物质的缩聚,而是来自星云近处擦肩而过的一颗行星。外星的潮汐力不仅引起了星云的旋转,而且还从太阳星云里拉出了大量的物质。这些物质一部分回落到太阳,一部分则留在外层空间继续旋转直到凝聚成为行星。这样的过程一共发生过五次。每次都造成两个尘埃潮。一个在靠近外来恒星的一侧,一个在相反的另一端。五次潮汐形成十个舌状的尘埃群,它们逐渐凝聚,形成所谓的“星子”。星子进一步聚集就成为行星和它们的卫星系。靠近外来恒星的一侧拉出的物质多,离太阳也较远,形成外行星;相反的一侧甩出的物质少,离太阳也较近,形成内行星。卫星的形成过程与之大同小异。这就是“星子说”。它的核心是,除了星云物质本身外,还需要一个不期而遇的外来星体,因此称为“二元论”或者“灾变论”。

1917年,英国科学家詹姆斯..金斯和哈罗德..杰弗里斯对“星子说”进行了修正。他们设想,那个不速之客从太阳里拽出来的,不是一般的星际物质,而是一个雪茄状的灼热气流。“雪茄”的近太阳一端重返太阳,远端的物质则凝聚成为行星。最大的行星位于中间,向两端逐渐变小。杰弗里斯后来又放弃潮汐论,转而主张外星与太阳的碰撞。

提出“灾变论”或“二元论”的初衷,是为了解释太阳系角动量的异常分配。20世纪之初,有人提出可以用磁场相互作用或太阳风来解释太阳角动量偏小的原因,无须借助外星来解决这个科学难题。于是,“碰撞说”渐趋式微。1930年,H. N.鲁塞尔用数学证明,碰撞不能为行星物质提供观察到的角动量,成为压断骆驼脊梁骨的最后一根稻草。待到40—50年代,“碰撞说”退出历史舞台。

20世纪40年代,天文学家们在星际介质中发现了不透明星云物质的“团块”或者“球状体”。密度很低,但足以在运动中发光。可能代表尘埃气体物质正在缓慢收缩,处于形成恒星的中途,因而称为“初星”。这一发现进一步激发了科学家的想象力。新的假说纷至沓来。美国天文学家F. 惠普尔提出了“尘埃云假说”。奎佩尔又提出原始行星假说等,均曾风行一时,其中尤以奎佩尔的假说最为引人入胜。1951年,奎佩尔著文指出,太阳系的形成,始于一个湍流强烈、规模巨大、密度不均匀的太阳星云。星云具有宇宙或太阳的成分,主要由氢、氦和少量较重的元素组成。其温度甚低,甚至可以在-200℃以下。由于尘埃之间的引力,星云开始收缩凝聚,湍流消失,发生旋转,并在赤道方向逐渐凸出,成为原始行星。原始行星也在旋转,其密度因旋转而逐渐增高,并在旋转加快的过程中形成卫星。其旋转方向也逐渐与它的公转方向取得一致。行星形成后,它们的物质开始重力分异。重者下沉,轻者上浮,出现圈层构造,形成以氢氦为主的大气圈。

人类对太阳系成因问题的认识,经历了否定之否定的曲折过程。时至今日,人类已经登月成功,而对太阳系的起源却依然争论不断。至于宇宙的成因,更是扑朔迷离。近年来,天文学界比较流行的“宇宙大爆炸”的假说是一种新的探索和尝试。

1929年,天文学家哈勃发现,宇宙的年龄要比人们预想的大得多,而且一直在膨胀。所有河外星系都在远离我们而去。另一位天文学家勒梅特根据现在的膨胀速率反推,认为在100亿~200亿年以前,宇宙物质应当集中在一个点上。由此推论,宇宙曾经发生过一次大爆炸。

1948年,美国天文学家伽莫夫接受并发展了勒梅特的思想,正式提出了宇宙起源的大爆炸学说。伽莫夫认为,宇宙最初原是一个温度极高、密度极大的 “原始火球”,由最基本的的粒子组成。根据现代物理学的原理,这个火球必定会迅速膨胀。膨胀过程之迅速犹如一次巨大的爆炸。正是这一次大爆炸启动了宇宙星体的形成过程。

宇宙大爆炸的学说一直没有引起人们的关注,在仓库里搁置了差不多20年。

1965年后,宇宙背景辐射的发现使宇宙大爆炸理论重见天日。原来,大爆炸学说曾经预言,当代宇宙中还应该存在着“原始火球”的“余热”,表现为一种四面八方无处不在的背景辐射,背景辐射的温度就是“余热”的温度。天文学的研究证明,这种宇宙的背景辐射确实存在。另一方面,由于天文学数据精度的提高,根据这些数据推算出来的宇宙膨胀年龄,也已从原来的50亿年增到100亿~200亿年,而这个年龄与迄今所发现的最老的天体年龄竟然很相近。这些事实使得人们再一次认识到,宇宙曾经有过一段从热到冷的历史,而且一直在不断地膨胀,使物质密度发生从密到稀的演化。宇宙大爆炸并非空穴来风。

现代的宇宙大爆炸理论认为,在宇宙演化的早期,其温度在100亿度以上。物质密度极高。宇宙间只有中子、质子、电子、光子和中微子等基本粒子。宇宙的迅速膨胀使它的密度和温度不断降低,形成了由原子、分子构成的气体物质。当温度降到10亿度左右时,中子开始失去自由存在的条件,它要么发生衰变,要么与质子结合成重氢、氦等元素;化学元素就从这一时期开始形成。温度进一步下降到100万度后,化学元素的早期形成过程结束。宇宙间的物质主要是质子、电子、光子和一些比较轻的原子核。当温度降到几千度时,辐射减退,宇宙间主要是气态物质,气体逐渐凝聚成为星云。而由于物质不均一引起的涡流运动,使得星云发生旋转或自转。星云中的固体颗粒聚集起来形成大小不等的星子。引力使星子发生碰撞形成石质的原星。有了原星,宇宙星体的诞生就为期不远了。太阳系就是在无边无际的宇宙的一隅形成的。

按照大爆炸理论,宇宙没有开端。它只是一个循环不断的过程,从大爆炸到黑洞,周而复始,便是宇宙创生与毁灭并再创生的过程。至于宇宙大爆炸的原因,至今尚在未定之天。

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